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  3. How did players of the past train?

from the heavens? :P
maybe.. but the before fischer era players would struggle against today's youngsters. their style of play wont work 9 out of 10 times or 8 today

LMAO yes not so deep LA, you will definitely refute King Gambit by Anderssen. For sure. And then you woke up.

I always think these comparisons across eras are a bit pointless.

Pre-computer analysis, all other things being equal, the best players rose to the top. In these days of computer analysis, with all other things being equal, the best players still rise to the top.

If Capablanca, as he existed in 1921, was to play against the top players of today, he'd be beaten.

But if Capablanca had been born in 1988 instead of 1888, and had the same access to technology as today's top players do, he'd still be right up there.

wth anderssen?? my turn to LMFAO now.. iam outta words now

still laughing.. and outta words you made my day bleh i dont have a life!

@deepLA Similar to the words on Ben Finegold, you find me an 1800 than can play blindfold simuls then get back to me. In fact, he'd say that to people who thought he is 2200 strength - then you rate him 400 points lower somehow. Obviously you have no idea what you're talking about.

I do not think that the initial question was to compare old and modern schools (and what about problems with blindfold games ?)
Did they play only with their own talent ?
did they spend their time to analyse their own games, or Philidor/Lopez games ?
Did they play more than they studied ?
Had they teams around them to prepare tournaments ,
What was the best openings in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th ?

There is not only elo ego or cheaters hunting in this world !

to the OP's question, simple answer, you practice BOARD VISUALIZATION :

The capability to see the board in your mind, the piece routes and, later, to be able to
solve simple positions only reading the arrangement of pieces takes a lot of time. The
good news is that the training is not hard and takes only some few minutes per week. The
process cannot be hurried up too much as your mind has to get used with this.
The training will consists in 3-4 days of training per week and a “board visualization”
training session should last for only 3-10 minutes. So, we will give between 12 and 16
sessions every month.
Answer to the given exercises, writing down your complete answers. At the end of the
training sessions, check your answers by looking at the board.
Do not try to solve the given exercises in less than a month as the effect is not bigger.
Again: your mind needs time to “see” the chess board, piece movement and tactical
cooperation between pieces.
Month 1
Day 1)
With the real board in front of you, arrange the pieces in the initial position and look at
the normal developing squares for the pieces (but without moving them):
- c3 and f3 squares are for the white knights
- c6 and f6 squares are for the black knights
- e2, d3, c4, b5 squares are for the White’s light-square bishop. The same, observe
the squares for normal development of the other bishops
- g2, b2, g7, b7 squares are for the fianchetto developments of the bishops
- g1 is the square where the White’s king arrives after the short castle. The same,
observe the squares for the long castle and, as well, for the black king. Then, look
at the squares where the rooks arrive after the fourth possible castles.
- Look at the fourth central squares (e4, d4, e5, d5)
Now, take the pieces out of the board and try to do the same thing (to see the normal
development squares) looking only at the empty board.
2
Now, the last stage of training of the first day: without looking at the chess board, tell all
the squares from above (the normal development squares for the knights, bishops,
bishops on fianchetto, kings and rooks after the castle is done).
Day 2)
The same as in Day 1)
Day 3)
The same as in the first day, but without looking at the board:
- tell the squares where the (4) knights develop normally
- tell the squares where the (4) bishops can develop normally
- tell the 4 squares of fianchetto development for the bishops
- tell the squares of kings and rooks after the castle is done
Day 4)
With the real board in front of you, look at all the squares controlled by:
- a knight developed on c3 (put only this knight on the board)
- a knight developed on f3 (--“--)
- a knight developed on c6 (--“--)
- a knight developed on f6 (--“--)
Then, without looking at the board, try to tell all the squares controlled by those 4
knights.
Day 5)
With the real board in front of you, look at all the squares controlled by:
- the f1-bishop developed on e2 (put only this bishop on the board)
- the f1-bishop developed on d3, c4, b5
- the f8-bishop developed on e7, d6, c5, b4
- the other 2 bishops as above
Without seeing the board, tell all the squares controlled by those 4 bishops developed as
explained (1, 2, 3, or 4 squares developed away from their initial position)
3
Day 6)
Without looking at the board, tell all the squares controlled by:
- a bishop on g2
- a bishop on g7
- a bishop on e5
- a bishop on b7
- a bishop on d2
- a bishop on c5
Day 7)
Without looking at the board, tell all the squares controlled by:
- a bishop on b2
- a bishop on b7
- a bishop on a5
- a bishop on h4
- a bishop on d4
- a bishop on f4
Day 8)
Without looking at the board, tell all the squares controlled by:
- a knight on c3
- a knight on e2
- a knight on f6
- a knight on d4
Day 9)
Without looking at the board, tell all the squares controlled by:
- a knight on c6
- a knight on f3
- a knight on b2
- a knight on c5
- a knight on h7
Day 10)
Without looking at the board, tell all the squares controlled by:
- a knight on c5 and a bishop on g3
- a knight on f4 and a bishop on h8
4
- a knight on d7 and a bishop on d2
- 2 knights on e4 and d4
Day 11)
Without looking at the board, tell:
- how a white rook from c1 can attack a knight on f6 (2 squares)
- how a black rook from h8 can attack a white knight on g2
- how a white rook from g5 can defend a white knight on h6
- how a black rook from c6 can defend a black bishop on g7
- how a white rook from f1 can check a black king on g8
- how a black rook from e5 can defend a black queen on c4
Day 12)
Without looking at the board, tell:
- Example: how a white queen from c5 can attack a black rook on g7 without being
captured? Answer: c3, d4, e5, f8. The squares controlled by the black rook are not
good, as for example c7.
- How a white queen from c1 can attack a black rook on g7 (without being
captured. This condition applies to all the next questions)
- How a white queen from d4 can attack a black rook on e8
- How a black queen from c3 can attack a white rook on f1
- How the white queen from the initial position can attack the black rook on a8,
and, then, h8.
Day 13)
Without looking at the board, tell:
- how a white queen from d1 can attack a black bishop on g7 without being
captured (This condition applies to all the next questions)
- how a white queen from d4 can attack a black bishop on b7
- how a black queen from c7 can attack a white bishop on g2
- how a white queen from d3 can attack a black bishop on h6
- how a white queen from b1 can attack a black bishop on f3
- how a black queen from g6 can attack a white bishop on b5

Before starting your visualization training, look for some seconds to the empty board.
When thinking to the exercises, try to visualize the board. Do not do this way: counting
down or up the files and ranks (as in this example: bishop c2 + 1,1 = d3 + 1,1 = e4…).
Write down your solutions and then verify by looking at the board.
Day 1)
Without looking at the board, tell all the squares controlled by:
- a bishop on g3
- a knight on f4
- a bishop on d2
- a knight on b7
- a bishop on h7
- a knight on e6
- a bishop on a4
- a knight on g7
Day 2)
Without looking at the board, tell all the squares controlled by:
- a knight on e4
- a rook on a1
- a queen on e2
- a bishop on c5
- a knight on c4
- a rook on e4
- a king on c7
- a bishop on g5
Day 3)
Without looking at the board, tell:
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from b4 to d7
2
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from e3 to d7
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from d2 to d7
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from b2 to b3
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from d1 to b3
Day 4)
Without looking at the board, tell:
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from h8 to g7
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from g4 to g7
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from a1 to h8
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from h1 to a8
Day 5)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first piece can attack the second piece in one
move without being captured (telling all the possibilities):
Example: Qe4, Ra6. Solution: e2, d3, c4, b7
- Qd2, Rb7
- Qc3, Rf2
- Qb6, Rg3
- Qf3, Rg7
- Qf1, Ra2
- Qg1, Rb8
- Qd7, Rf6
- Qa5, Rh4
- Qa5, Rg4
- Qc6, Rf2
Day 6)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first piece can attack the second piece in one
move without being captured (telling all the possibilities):
- Qf3, Bc5
- Qg2, Bc7
- Qf5, Bb3
- Qf5, Rb3
- Qf5, Kd4
- Qe2, Kg3
- Qf8, Rd5
- Qd1, Rc4
- Qa1, Rf8
- Qg1, Re4
3
Day 7)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first white piece can check the black king in
one move without being captured (telling all the possibilities):
Example: White: Qd3; Black: Kg5, Bc6, pawn f4. Solution: only Qd8+
- White: Qe2; Black: Kf4, Ne3
- White: Qb5; Black: Kf6, Be6
- White: Ne4; Black: Kd7, Be5
- White: Nc4; Black: Kb7, Bb6
- White: Be7; Black: Ke3, Rc3
- White: Be2; Black: Kd7, Ne3
- White: Rf2; Black: Kc7, Ne5
- White: Rg4; Black: Kb7, Be5
Day 8)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first white piece can check the black king in
one move without being captured (telling all the possibilities):
- White: Qd5; Black: Kg7, Nc5, pawn e5
- White: Qb8; Black: Ke4, Ba4, pawn c5
- White: Qd2; Black: Kc7, Ne2
- White: Qe1; Black: Kd8, Rd4
- White: Qf5; Black: Kc3, Bg2, Be7
Day 9)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first white piece can check the black king in
one move without being captured (telling all the possibilities):
- White: Qf2; Black: Kc6, Rg8, Nd7, pawn d2
- White: Qe4; Black: Kd6, Be8, Ne1, pawn e5
- White: Qb6; Black: Ke4, Rh1, Bf8, Nd8
- White: Qe5, Black: Ka5, Ba2, Nd5
- White: Qb5, Black: Kf1, Bc8, Ne2
Day 10)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first white piece can check the black king in
one move without being captured (telling all the possibilities):
- White: Qc2; Black: Kf4, Bd7, pawns d5 and e3
4
- White: Qb1; Black: Kd6, Rd4, Rg8, Bf2
- White: Qb3; Black: Kh5, Rd8, Bg2, Nd6
- White: Qe2; Black: Ke8, Qe5, Bc5, pawn e4
- White: Qb2; Black: Kd6, Qd4, Rh8, Bc8, Nc3
Day 11)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first white piece can check the black king in
one move without being captured (telling all the possibilities):
- White: Qh2; Black: Kf7, Ra8, Na6, Nf6
- White: Qg3; Black: Kd6, Ba7, Nd1, pawns: c3, e5, h7
- White: Qh8; Black: Ke6, Qc1, Bf7, Ng5
- White: Qg8; Black: Kb2, Bf3, Be5, Nd6
- White: Qg2; Black: Kc5, Qc1, Nf1
Day 12)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first white piece can check the black king in
one move without being captured.
Pay attention if you can capture an opponent piece (giving check) – it’s allowed.
Also, don’t forget to find ALL possible checks!
Example: White: Qc2; Black: Ke6, Rb4, Bh5, Ng6, Nc6.
Correct solution: 1.Qa2+ and 1.Qxc6+
- White: Qg2; Black: Kd3, Rf5, Be5, Nf2
- White: Qf5; Black: Kf1, Rb1, Nb4, pawn f2
- White: Qf3; Black: Ke5, Qe1, Nd2, Nc3
- White: Qc2; Black: Kf7, Qa8, Re4, Bg3, Nc7
- White: Qd1; Black: Kh4, Ra4, Ba8, Nf3, Ne7
Day 13)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first white piece can check the black king in
one move without being captured (as explained above).
- White: Qb2; Black: Kg7, Bg2, Ne5
- White: Qc5; Black: Ke6, Ba7, Nb6
- White: Qa3; Black: Kf3, Rh8, Bc8, Nd5, pawn b3
- White: Qg5; Black: Kd6, Rd2, Bd8, Nc3, Ne6
- White: Qe5; Black: Ka3, Qb6, Rh3, Nb1, pawn e3

Day 1)
Without looking at the board, tell all the squares controlled by:
- a knight on e2
- a knight on d6
- a knight on b4
Without looking at the board, tell:
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from a3 to d1
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from f3 to c3
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from c6 to f6
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from c3 to c6
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from f3 to f6
Day 2)
Without looking at the board, tell:
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from b3 to a8
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from g2 to d6
Day 3)
Without looking at the board, tell:
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from f2 to e7
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from c3 to g7
- all the shortest paths to bring a knight from d2 to b4
2
Day 4)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first piece can attack the second piece in one
move without being captured (telling all the possibilities):
- Qd3, Rb7 (4 solutions…)
- Qf3, Rc7
- Qe6, Rd1
- Qb3, Rh7
- Qe1, Bf4
- Qd3, Bb7
- Qd1, Be5
- Qg3, Bb6
Day 5)
Without looking at the board, tell how the first white piece can check the black king in
one move without being captured (telling all the possibilities):
- White: Nb5; Black: Ke2, Ne4
- White: Qc3; Black: Kg5, Bd6
- White: Qc2; Black: Kb7, Nc5
- White: Qf7; Black: Kc2, Bb6, Nd4
- White: Qg6; Black: Kd3, Bd7, Nf5
Day 6)
Tell how the white queen can check the black king in one move without being captured.
White can capture opponent pieces (if they are not defended). Not all the problems have
solution.
- White: Qf4; Black: Kb1, Rb5, Bb4, Nd2, Ne5
- White: Qd5; Black: Kf8, Nd6, Bh1, Nb5
- White: Qb7; Black: Kg4, Rf6, Be5, Nd2
- White: Qc1; Black: Ke5, Rb7, Re3, Nb5, Bg7
Day 7)
In the following exercises, we start from the initial position and indicate a series of
moves. Then, find the winning move for the player who is to move.
- 1.d4 Nf6 2.Bg5 c6 3.e3
- 1.f4 e5 2.fxe5 d6 3.exd6 Bxd6 4.Nf3 g5 5.h3
- 1.b4 c6 2.c4 Qb6 3.Qb3 a5 4.a3 axb4 5.c5 Qxc5 6.axb4
- 1.Nf3 g6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Bf4 a6 5.e3 Nbd7 6.Ne5 Bg7 7.Be2 b6
3
Day 8)
- 1.e4 e5 2.d4 exd4 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.Bc4 Be7 5.c3 dxc3
- 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Qh4 5.Nc3 Bc5 6.Be3 Nge7 7.Nf3 Qh5
- 1.d4 Nf6 2.e3 c5 3.dxc5 e6 4.b3 Bxc5 5.Ba3
- 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.Nc3 d6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Qxd4 a6 6.Qd3 Nc6 7.Bf4 Qc7 8.0–0–0
Ne5 9.Nxe5 dxe5
Day 9)
- 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 c6 4.Qc2 f5 5.Bf4 Nf6 6.e3 Bd6 7.Nc3 0–0 8.Be2 Bd7
- 1.e4 d6 2.d4 Nd7 3.Nf3 g6 4.Bc4 Bg7
- 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 e5 4.Bc4 d6 5.d3 Bg4 6.h3 Bh5
- 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 f5 4.d3 Nf6 5.exf5 Bc5 6.Nc3 0–0 7.Bg5 d5 8.Nxd5
Qxd5
Day 10)
- 1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 c5 4.b3 Bg7 5.Bb2 0–0 6.e4
- 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 c6 4.Nc3 Nf6 5.Bg5 Nbd7 6.e3 Qa5 7.Nd2 Bb4 8.Qc2 0–0
9.Bd3
- 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Qb6 5.Nc3 Bc5 6.Nce2
- 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.cxd5 exd5 5.Bg5 Be7 6.e3 c6 7.Qc2 Ne4 8.Bxe7
Qxe7
Day 11)
- 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.exd5 exd5 4.Bd3 c5 5.Ne2
- 1.d4 c5 2.d5 d6 3.c4 e5 4.Nc3 Be7 5.g3 f5 6.e4 Bg5
- 1.d4 b6 2.e4 Bb7 3.Bd3 Nf6 4.Qe2 e6 5.Nf3 d5 6.e5 Nfd7 7.Ng5 c5
- 1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Qf3 Nc6 4.Ne2 d5 5.exd5 Nb4 6.Nxf4 Nf6 7.Nc3 Qe7+ 8.Kf2
Day 12)
- 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.Nc3 Bb4 5.Bg5 h6 6.Bh4 d6
- 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Bxc6 dxc6 5.0–0 f6 6.d4 exd4 7.Nxd4 Bc5
- 1.d4 g6 2.e4 Bg7 3.Nc3 c6 4.h3 d6 5.a4 Qc7 6.Be3 e5 7.Nge2 Be6 8.g3 Nd7
- 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 g6 6.Bg5 Bg7 7.Qd2 0–0 8.0–0–0
Nc6
Day 13)
- 1.Nf3 c5 2.c4 g6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Bg7 5.e4 Nf6 6.Nc3 0–0 7.Be2 b6
- 1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 c5 3.d5 b5 4.Bg5 Qa5+ 5.c3 Ne4 6.Bh4 Bb7 7.e3 e6 8.dxe6 dxe6
9.Bxb5+ Qxb5
- 1.c4 f5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.g3 g6 4.Bg2 Bg7 5.d3 d6 6.e4 Nc6 7.h4 e5 8.h5 Be6 9.Nd5
Qd7
- 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Qb3 c5 5.dxc5 Nc6 6.Bg5 h6 7.Bxf6 Qxf6 8.Nf3
b6 9.cxb6 axb6 10.e3 … (Black’s move is spectacular!)