Watch for Carlsen's next username on Lichess:
I read FIDE's Handbook of Rules and found no specific reference to a player making a claim of an illegal move in rapic/blitz and having the claim rejected. In classical play the position is set back up before the irregularity, which the arbiter did here. The rules cover many examples of draw claims made in blitz/rapid (same rules apply). If the claim is upheld, the result is obvious, but if incorrect it seems the arbiters discretion prevails in situations other than draw claims which are clearly written.
The Laws of Chess cannot cover all possible situations that may arise during a game, nor can they regulate all administrative questions. Where cases are not precisely regulated by an Article of the Laws, it should be possible to reach a correct decision by studying analogous situations which are regulated in the Laws. The Laws assume that arbiters have the necessary competence, sound judgement and absolute objectivity. Too detailed a rule might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of judgement and thus prevent him from finding a solution to a problem dictated by fairness, logic and special factors. FIDE appeals to all chess players and federations to accept this view.
Introduction to FIDE Rules
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