Is there some sort of order on how relevant things are?

Last game I experienced that having an open game with two bishops is more important than having control over the center. Also I experienced that having a good development is extremely important. I know each game is different, but still it would help if you could help me come up with an order sorted by relevance so I can simplify my thought process.

Or do you maybe have tips on how to find out which rule is most important to follow in a situation?

Concrete position, concrete answer.

There are no golden rules.

PS: if you have a development advantage it is sometimes advisable to open the position for the two knights against the two bishops. As quickly as possible. Sometimes.

There are no rules without exceptions. If you manage to win the queen then you will win the games. Really every time? No, even for this there are exceptions where the compenastion is that overwhelming that a queen down doesn't matter that much.

@Sarg0n @royalblue04 yes I know that. And I understand what you are trying to say. But still Ill need some guideline because I always try to keep everything in mind and then might forget keeping in mind the most important thing. I am sure practice will help me too but some kind of guideline till I gained more experience would be very helpful. How to decide if the center or development or open/closed position is more important at the moment - there have to be certain factors... maybe you aren't aware of it, but there has to be something that triggers your brain to focuse on something specific in situation right? You "just know" somehow what is important right now. But your brain doesn't just "know" - it recognizes structures or patterns and just then you start thinking about specific questions. Maybe you could try to find out which factors there are if you are aware of them? For example some people immediately get alarmed by a pin against them and therefore know it is important to be aware of tactics of your opponent. Others might notice immediately if the opponents king is in the center, opening up the center might be even more important right now then developing the rest of the pieces. Do you know what I mean? Can you think of anything that triggers you in a way to think about specific things to do?

The most important is king's safety. A king in the center or a weakened defence of the king triggers.

There are books with hundreds of endgame positions and hundreds of pages of commentary about what to consider.

Nigel Short: Modern chess is too much concerned with things like pawn structure. Forget it, checkmate ends the game

Development and controling the center means the same thing i guess. Where is the point to moving piece from a square where it don't does anything to another square where it does anything? ;-)
You should put your king always safe. And be alarmed when your oponent fails to do so.
Simple plan for beginners: Put your pwans in the center, your pieces on fields where they control the center, put your rooks on open files and win the game when you are done ;-)

@Toadofsky @royalblue04 that was not the question. The question was how those ideas and things to be considered should be sorted by relevance in general or in specific situation considering some factors. Of course it is ideal if a move coveres many ideas at once (like d4 at the beginning also frees the bishop and also gains space and also fights for the center) - but there are times where you need to decide if you want to for example fight for the center OR guarantee the game stays open and your king is safe.

Like here were fighting for the center was wrong for other reasons obviously:

White has not fought for the center in this game. Ng5 looks like a bad move, Nb3 would have developed a piece and don't give up the centre - what Ng5 did without any reason. Looks like that with Nb3 it is well possible to get the pawn back...
There is no such order, it is never wrong to fight for center control (unless there is a mate on h8 ;-) )