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3. # Draw determination

lichess.org/KF3cdOMgzK0c

Wot determines a draw? I mean like I swear I didn't repeat anything... :c

Argh, I had +30 seconds and +2 to stockfish..

Click on whites move 47 49 and 53 notice anything?

Hm. Nope, what it is?

One of the draw circumstances is threefold repetition--essentially, if a board state repeats thrice in a single game, then the players may choose to claim a draw.

Many users use the default setting of automatically claiming a draw via threefold repetition if their amount of time is lower than 30 seconds, which is almost certainly what happened (for your opponent had a mere 2.8 seconds remaining).

If you want the full list of draw circumstances, (as I'm assuming you are requesting by your initial question,) that includes...
-Stalemate
-Threefold repetition
-Insufficient material
-Draw by agreement
-and the Fifty move rule.

As @GMScuzzBall points out, the positions after 47. Qf4, 49. Kg2 and 53. Qf4 are identical. Therefore it is a draw by threefold repetition.
It is important to note that the repeated positions do not necessarily have to occur on consecutive moves. Also, the piece being moved does not necessarily have to be the same piece in all 3 instances. You moved Qf4 on 2 instances and Kg2 on the other. What is critical is that the resulting positions are identical. When you click on 47. Qf4, 49. Kg2 and 53. Qf4 in the notation, you will see that the pieces do not move.

The comments above are correct but just to be comprehensive, here's what the "Fide Laws of Chess taking effect from 1 January 2018" have to say as far what is relevant here:

www.fide.com/component/handbook/?id=208&view=article

> "Article 9: The drawn game

> 9.2.1 The game is drawn, upon a correct claim by a player having the move, when the same position for at least the third time (not necessarily by a repetition of moves):"

plus a few extra things mostly relating to over the over the board tournament play along with conditions about en passant and castling which you're *probably* not likely to have to worry too much about online.

Note the remark in parenthesis - "not necessarily by a repetition of moves" - this needs to be mentioned because threefold repetition is commonly misunderstood as "three move" repetition as a result of "perpetual check".

Three move repetition is not correct. What threefold repetition is about is a board position repeating three times during a game + a correct claim on the fact.

This can be difficult to remember over the board when more than two pieces are being shuffled around - in fact in the Challengers section of the 2019 Tata Steel Chess tournament, one game had a *fourfold* repetition: lichess.org/study/CViu1SJc/o4CUoX6h#122

In the end, I wouldn't be surprised if the official scoresheet for that one implies that the players agreed to a draw without the assistance of the arbiter (which at that level you'd probably expect to happen *before* a threefold eventuates)!

Wikipedia lists several more examples too (including incorrect claims) - it's definitely not always simple to work out: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threefold_repetition

But fortunately with Lichess, probably less time/prize money is at stake and you can at least easily arrow back from the final position after a game and search for the same position occuring twice earlier.

In the case of your game: Bishop on e6, Rook e5 plus King on f4, and Queen g2.

Everything was pretty much explained in the first few posts. For those interested to dive deeper.

The "50 move rule" and threefold repetition are relatively new rules. The problem of never ending games is not new however.

Before these rules there was a rule that a game could be declared drawn if a sequence of moves repeats three times in a row. Note- this is fundamentally different from threefold repetition rule as it requires for the moves to repeat not the state!

It was Max Euwe who proved that this is not sufficient and you could produce infinitely long games given such rules. He provided a mathematical proof for this and due to this the rules were refined and the 50 move rule and threefold repetition were added.

A short(ish) video on this topic:
youtu.be/ZwJlOJuhbOw

Photographic draw